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Optiscan FIVE2 (ViewnVivo)2018-12-03T13:02:34-05:00
ViewnVivo

FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) is a miniaturised fluorescence endomicroscope platform that brings the next generation of Optiscan’s incredible imaging capability and flexibility to Preclinical Research.

Optiscan ViewnVivo System

The FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) B30 is the latest miniaturised fluorescence endomicroscope from Optiscan, optimized for real-time Preclinical Research in vivo imaging in animal models.  And while the FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) B30 comes to life in vivo, there is no reason why it can not be used for ex vivo research as well. Combining all that is required to get you started, the FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) B30 will have you capturing stunning and unparalleled images immediately.

The main components are:

  • Confocal Processor
  • Optiscan Imager (software that controls the Confocal Processor and captures images)
  • Miniaturised Probe
  • Client PC, Monitor, Keyboard and Mouse
  • Animal Handling Stage and Probe Positioner
  • 3D Visulalisation and Analysis Software

Move to the “Key Features” and “Components” tab to learn more.

Optiscan - ViewnVivo - Probes

Point Scanning Confocal Technology

Point Scanning Confocal is a patented technology designed and developed by Optiscan over many years and is responsible for the stunning full field of view image capture delivered by FIVE2 (ViewnVivo).

Embedded within the tip of the miniaturized probe is a complex mechanical scanner, comprising a pair of lenses that focus the laser at the exact depth required. The laser is delivered, and the returning light is captured through a single optical fibre that is moved across the field of view (scanning) to capture the entire image.  The system controls the speed at which the optical fibre scans, and can be adjusted accordingly along with the power of the laser, to provide optimal results.

The following image is a comparison of legacy Bundle Fibre technology (left) and Optiscan Point Scanning Technology (right).  Image set A presents a sample scan at full screen resolution.   Image set B represents a focal area (point of interest) of the sample image, and Image set C is the zoomed view of this focal area.  As you can see, legacy Bundle Fibre technology does not offer a level of clarity and detail any where close to Point Scanning Technology.

Remember, you cannot view or create what is missing from the original raw image.  Missing information cannot be created or interpolated through image processing.  Don’t settle for half the picture – use FIVE2 (ViewnVivo)!

Optiscan - ViewnVivo - Point Scanning vs Bundle Fibre

Superior Optics – Stunning Image Quality

Optiscan’s patented imaging technology and variably adjustable imaging depth feature permit researchers to capture a level of image detail that is unmatched from any other single miniaturised confocal microscope probe. Capture high-resolution real-time in vivo images with submicron detail and view them in stunning full-screen quality for faster Preclinical Research insights.

Image: Small Canine Intestine – Courtesy of Researchers at University of Melbourne, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences

Small Canine Intestine (University of Melbourne, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences) - Optiscan In Vivo Microscopy Solutions

Optical Sectioning

Through interactive, continuously variable depth control (z-axis), capture images as optical sections to generate 3D visualisations.

Image: Visceral adipose tissue stained with LYVE-1, AF488 and Hoechst for nuclei – Courtesy of Enyuan Cao, Monash Institue of Pharmaceutical Sciences

ViewnVivo - Optical Sectioning (Z-stack) Sample

Miniaturised

Miniaturised no longer means compromise. Not only does the FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) platform capture images comparable to those previously only possible from larger and more expensive fixed/bench mounted microscopes, giving you the flexibility to view cellular and sub-cellular structures in vivo that can quickly take your research to another level.

Real-time In Vivo Insight

As someone who values the benefit of detailed insight, you will appreciate the ability to unlock the ultimate and most direct observations of systems biology in vivo. No longer do you need to try to observe living tissue in an unnatural manner. With FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) not only can you see it in its natural state but you can enable longitudinal studies and keyhole procedures whilst reducing terminal procedures.

Flexibility

Don’t let inflexible bench mounted microscopy be a limiting factor. The flexibility of a miniaturised probe enables investigation not possible through fixed benchtop microscopes. FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) lets you take your imaging to your animal model and position it at any angle of approach to allow you to interrogate the structures of interest, in vivo.

No Probe Change

There is no need to change probes within a procedure, although you can change the probe form factor to suit the investigation, without restarting the system. Unlike other technologies, with FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) you can dynamically adjust imaging parameters using a single probe enabling uninterrupted imaging.

Never Miss an Image

Capture images and their associated meta-data on-demand even if your hands are full, or automatically as a series of image depths (z-stack). Images can even be captured retrospectively from the live image stream through the ‘roll-back’ functionality.

No Dedicated Technician or Facility Required

FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) delivers maximum flexibility in a platform so simple and small that it doesn’t require a dedicated technician or facility, meaning it can be used by virtually anyone and still capture unbelievable images that will validate your investigations. The self-calibrating system and probe lets the user turn it on and use it.

Confocal Processor

The heart of the FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) system is the Confocal Processor which incorporates:

  • Laser System
  • Image Receptor
  • Probe Connector
  • System Controls
ViewnVivo - Confocal Processor

Optiscan Imager

Optiscan Imager is the core PC client-based software application that controls the Confocal Processor and presents the visible images to the user.  Some of the functionality that this application provides is:

  • Start and Pause Laser
  • Adjust Laser Power up or down
  • Adjust Brightness (when Automatic Brightness is disabled)
  • Increase of Decrease Scan Depth
  • Select Filter
  • Adjust Aspect Ratio and Alter Zoom

From the pop-out control Menu you can also:

  • Set and execute Z-Step
  • View Captured Images in Folder
  • Generate and/or View Z-Stack image set as a Movie
ViewnVivo - Optiscan Imager

Probe – Standard

The standard Probe supplied with the B30 configuration is:

  • 66mm in length
  • 4mm in diameter
  • Connected via 1.5m Cable (Umbilical)
ViewnVivo - Probe - Standard

Probe – Optional

Users have the option to add additional Probes as required. Available form factors include:

  • 46mm in length
  • 4mm in diameter
  • Connected via 1.5m Cable (Umbilical)
  • More flexibility for endoscopic procedures
ViewnVivo - Probe - 46mm
  • 300mm in length
  • 4mm in diameter
  • Connected via 3.5m Cable (Umbilical)
  • For laparoscopic procedures
ViewnVivo - Probe - 300mm

Animal Stage with Adjustable Probe Holder – Standard

To help you accurately place and hold the miniaturised probe in the desired location and at any angle approach, use the simple yet sophisticated Animal Handling Stage with Adjustable Probe Holder.

By simply loosening a single knob you can then adjust the probe position to where you need it and then tighten it again. Fitted with X, Y & Z micro adjusters you can then refine the probe position to pinpoint the region of interest, all while watching it on the screen. Once positioned you can then capture images without the need to hold the probe.

Constructed from milled aluminium, it is designed to enable you to add your own heating within a covered void under the platform to maintain the animal models temperature.

ViewnVivo - Animal Stage

Image: Animal Stage with Standard 66mm Probe

Client PC

The standard Client PC is a HP Z240 Workstation with the following specifications:

  • CPU: Zeon
  • RAM: 16GB
  • Primary Drive: 256GB SSD
  • Storage: 2TB 7200rpm HDD
  • Graphics Card:  NVIDIA K1200
  • Network Ports: 1 x Ethernet
  • Operating System: Windows 7 Professional 64-bit
  • Warranty: 3 Year On-site

The System is provided in a Small Form Factor Case and mounted to an adjustable stand behind the Monitor.

ViewnVivo - Client PC

PC Monitor (Display)

To present your images in the best light the FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) B30 comes standard with a HP Z25n 25-inch Narrow Bezel IPS Display Screen Monitor.

  • Size:  24.98″ (Diagonal)
  • Native Resolution: 2560 x 1440
  • Aspect Ratio: 16:9
  • Brightness: 350 cd/m2
  • Touch Enabled: No
  • Stand:  HP SFF Integrated Work Center V3 (to mount Client PC)
ViewnVivo - PC Monitor

PC Keyboard & Mouse

The system is supplied with a Waterproof Wireless Keyboard and mouse that can be wiped clean or placed in a dishwasher.  Additionally the keyboard comes with replaceable keyboard covers for added protection. Please note that depending on availability the color may vary.

ViewnVivo - Keyboard
  

Footswitch

To provide you flexibility and enable you to control the system, even when your hands are full, FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) B30 includes a standard 3-Way Footswitch that provide the following functionality:

  • Capture Single Image (Tap Switch)
  • Continuous Image Capture (Hold Switch down)
  • Increase and Decrease Focal Depth
  • Increase and Decrease Laser Power
ViewnVivo - Footswitch

3D Software

As a standard, Fiji (ImageJ) is supplied installed and configured on the Client PC for 3D Visualisation as you capture images.  Fiji is an Open Source application widely used in the Research community.  If you require addtional functionality you may wish to consider the optional 3D software application.

We have added custom controls to enable you to easily generate a 3D Visualisation of your last Z-Stack series.

Should you require additional functionality to visualise or analyse your images we also offer two leading commercial off-the-shelf 3D Software applications:

  • Imaris
  • Image Premier-Pro 3D

Please contact us to talk about these options.

Fiji

B30 Specification Summary

Imaging Resolution< 0.5 μm lateral; <4.5 μm axial
Imaging Depth0 – 400μm (without moving or changing the probe)
Note: effective imaging depth is dependent on specimen/tissue being interrogated
Z-Step3μm (precision 1μm)
Field of View475μm x 475μm at full resolution plus zoom
Aspect Ratios1:1, 16:9, 16:10, 4:3, 5:4
Note: scanning speed changes depending on the selected aspect ratio
Wavelength488nm (Blue)
Laser Power10μW – 1000μW (1mW) – adjustable in 10μW increments
Probe Outer Diameter4mm
Standard Probe66mm (straight rigid) – Others available
Probe Cable Length1500mm
Filter Wheel12 Position (8 Standard filters included) *4 custom filters can be added
Image CaptureSingle Frames, Z-Stacks and [retrospective] Roll-back
Image OutputCaptured as TIFF and Multi-page TIFF
(including embedded meta-data)
Maximum Scan Speed6 fps

Blood Vessel

  • Thong, P., et al., Early assessment of tumor response to photodynamic therapy using combined diffuse optical and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to predict treatment outcome. Oncotarget, 2017. 8(12): p. 19902-19913.

Brain

  • Leierseder, S., Confocal endomicroscopy during brain surgery. laser+photonics, 2018.
  • Izadyyazdanabadi, M., et al., Prospects for Theranostics in Neurosurgical Imaging: Empowering Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Diagnostics via Deep Learning. Front Oncol, 2018. 8: p. 240.
  • Martirosyan, N.L., et al., Handheld confocal laser endomicroscopic imaging utilizing tumor-specific fluorescent labeling to identify experimental glioma cells in vivo. Surgical Neurology International, 2016. 7(Suppl 40): p. S995-S1003.
  • Belykh, E., et al., Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging for Personalized Brain Tumor Resection: Current State and Future Directions. Front Surg, 2016. 3: p. 55.
  • Martirosyan N.L., et al., Potential application of a handheld confocal endomicroscope imaging system using a variety of fluorophores in experimental gliomas and normal brain. Neurosurgical Focus, 2014. 36(2): p. E16.
  • Kathryn E. Fenton, et al., In vivo visualization of GL261-luc2 mouse glioma cells by use of Alexa Fluor–labeled TRP-2 antibodies. Neurosurgical Focus, 2014. 36(2): p. E12.
  • Peyre, M., et al., Miniaturized Handheld Confocal Microscopy Identifies Focal Brain Invasion in a Mouse Model of Aggressive Meningioma. Brain Pathology, 2013. 23(4): p. 371-377.
  • Foersch, S., et al., Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for Diagnosis and Histomorphologic Imaging of Brain Tumors In Vivo. PLoS ONE, 2012. 7(7): p. e41760.
  • Sankar, T.M.D., et al., Miniaturized Handheld Confocal Microscopy for Neurosurgery: Results in an Experimental Glioblastoma Model. Neurosurgery, 2010. 66(2).

Gastrointestinal Tract

  • Varga, G., et al., Acetylsalicylic acid-tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane reduces colon mucosal damage without causing gastric side effects in a rat model of colitis. Inflammopharmacology, 2018. 26(1): p. 261-271.
  • Mészáros, A.T., et al., Inhalation of methane preserves the epithelial barrier during ischemia and reperfusion in the rat small intestine. Surgery, 2017. 161(6): p. 1696-1709.
  • Vargas, G., et al., In Vivo Rectal Mucosal Barrier Function Imaging in a Large-Animal Model by Using Confocal Endomicroscopy: Implications for Injury Assessment and Use in HIV Prevention Studies. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2016. 60(8): p. 4600.
  • Varga, G., et al., Reduced mucosal side-effects of acetylsalicylic acid after conjugation with tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new anti-inflammatory compound. European Journal of Pharmacology, 2016. 781: p. 181-189.
  • Tuboly, E., et al., C5a inhibitor protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat small intestine. Microbiology and Immunology, 2016. 60(1): p. 35-46.
  • Érces, D., et al., Complement C5a inhibition improves late hemodynamic and inflammatory changes in a rat model of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. Surgery, 2016. 159(3): p. 960-971.
  • Sharman, M.J., et al., In Vivo Histologically Equivalent Evaluation of Gastric Mucosal Topologic Morphology in Dogs By using Confocal Endomicroscopy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2014. 28(3): p. 799-808.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor. Gastroenterology, 2010. 138(2): p. 435-46.
  • Goetz, M. and R. Kiesslich, Advances of endomicroscopy for gastrointestinal physiology and diseases. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 2010. 298(6): p. G797-G806.
  • Goetz, M., et al., Simultaneous confocal laser endomicroscopy and chromoendoscopy with topical cresyl violet. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 2009. 70(5): p. 959-968.
  • Bao, H., et al. Imaging of goblet cells as a marker for intestinal metaplasia of the stomach by one-photon and two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy. 2009. SPIE.
  • Kiesslich, R., et al., Identification of Epithelial Gaps in Human Small and Large Intestine by Confocal Endomicroscopy. Gastroenterology, 2007. 133(6): p. 1769-1778.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo subsurface morphological and functional cellular and subcellular imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with confocal mini-microscopy. World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG, 2007. 13(15): p. 2160-2165.
  • Thong, P.S., et al., Toward real-time virtual biopsy of oral lesions using confocal laser endomicroscopy interfaced with embedded computing. J Biomed Opt, 2012. 17(5): p. 056009.
  • Bari, G., Szűcs, S., Érces, D., Boros, M., & Varga, G. (2018). Experimental pericardial tamponade–translation of a clinical problem to its large animal model. Turkish Journal of Surgery,34(3), 205-211. doi:10.5152/turkjsurg.2018.4181

Liver, Pancreas and Spleen

  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo subsurface morphological and functional cellular and subcellular imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with confocal mini-microscopy. World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG, 2007. 13(15): p. 2160-2165.
  • Strifler, G., Pathomechanism and therapeutic possibilities of mitochondrial dysfunction in ischemia-reperfusion, in Institute of Surgical Research. 2016, University of Szeged.
  • Guan, Q., et al., Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles co-loaded with syringopicroside and hydroxytyrosol. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 2015. 27(2): p. 24.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo real-time imaging of the liver with confocal endomicroscopy permits visualization of the temporospatial patterns of hepatocyte apoptosis. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 2011. 301(5): p. G764-G772.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In Vivo Molecular Imaging of Colorectal Cancer With Confocal Endomicroscopy by Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. Gastroenterology, 2010. 138(2): p. 435-446.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo confocal laser laparoscopy allows real time subsurface microscopy in animal models of liver disease. J Hepatol, 2008. 48(1): p. 91-7.
  • Fottner, C., et al., In Vivo Molecular Imaging of Somatostatin Receptors in Pancreatic Islet Cells and Neuroendocrine Tumors by Miniaturized Confocal Laser-Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy. Endocrinology, 2010. 151(5): p. 2179-2188.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In Vivo Molecular Imaging of Colorectal Cancer With Confocal Endomicroscopy by Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. Gastroenterology, 2010. 138(2): p. 435-446

Reproductive

  • Gallacher, K., et al., Real-time in vivo Microscopic Imaging of Equine Endometrium Using Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: Preliminary Observations and Feasibility Study. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 2018. 66.
  • Milligan, G.N., et al., Evaluation of immunological markers of ovine vaginal irritation: Implications for preclinical assessment of non-vaccine HIV preventive agents. Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 2017. 124: p. 38-43.

Tendon & Cartilage

  • Yang, X., et al., Protein kinase C delta null mice exhibit structural alterations in articular surface, intra-articular and subchondral compartments. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 2015. 17(1): p. 210.
  • WU, J.-P., et al., The development of confocal arthroscopy as optical histology for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Journal of Microscopy, 2015. 259(3): p. 269-2

Dog

  • Sharman, M., et al., Comparison of in vivo confocal endomicroscopy with other diagnostic modalities to detect intracellular helicobacters. The Veterinary Journal, 2016. 213: p. 78-83.
  • Sharman, M.J., et al., In Vivo Histologically Equivalent Evaluation of Gastric Mucosal Topologic Morphology in Dogs By using Confocal Endomicroscopy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2014. 28(3): p. 799-808.

Horse

  • Gallacher, K., et al., Real-time in vivo Microscopic Imaging of Equine Endometrium Using Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: Preliminary Observations and Feasibility Study. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 2018. 66.

Mouse

  • Belykh, E., et al., Probe-based three-dimensional confocal laser endomicroscopy of brain tumors: technical note. Cancer Management and Research, 2018. Volume 10: p. 3109-3123.
  • Thong, P., et al., Early assessment of tumor response to photodynamic therapy using combined diffuse optical and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to predict treatment outcome. Oncotarget, 2017. 8(12): p. 19902-19913.
  • Belykh, E., et al., Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging for Personalized Brain Tumor Resection: Current State and Future Directions. Front Surg, 2016. 3: p. 55.
  • Yang, X., et al., Protein kinase C delta null mice exhibit structural alterations in articular surface, intra-articular and subchondral compartments. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 2015. 17(1): p. 210
  • Guan, Q., et al., Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles co-loaded with syringopicroside and hydroxytyrosol. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 2015. 27(2): p. 24.
  • Martirosyan, N.L., et al., Potential application of a handheld confocal endomicroscope imaging system using a variety of fluorophores in experimental gliomas and normal brain. Neurosurgical Focus, 2014. 36(2): p. E16.
  • Kathryn E. Fenton, et al., In vivo visualization of GL261-luc2 mouse glioma cells by use of Alexa Fluor–labeled TRP-2 antibodies. Neurosurgical Focus, 2014. 36(2): p. E12.
  • Peyre, M., et al., Miniaturized Handheld Confocal Microscopy Identifies Focal Brain Invasion in a Mouse Model of Aggressive Meningioma. Brain Pathology, 2013. 23(4): p. 371-377.
  • Thong, P.S., et al., Toward real-time virtual biopsy of oral lesions using confocal laser endomicroscopy interfaced with embedded computing. J Biomed Opt, 2012. 17(5): p. 056009.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo real-time imaging of the liver with confocal endomicroscopy permits visualization of the temporospatial patterns of hepatocyte apoptosis. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 2011. 301(5): p. G764-G772.
  • Sankar, T.M.D et al., Miniaturized Handheld Confocal Microscopy for Neurosurgery: Results in an Experimental Glioblastoma Model. Neurosurgery, 2010. 66(2).
  • Goetz, M., et al., In Vivo Molecular Imaging of Colorectal Cancer With Confocal Endomicroscopy by Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. Gastroenterology, 2010. 138(2): p. 435-446.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor. Gastroenterology, 2010. 138(2): p. 435-46.
  • Goetz, M. and R. Kiesslich, Advances of endomicroscopy for gastrointestinal physiology and diseases. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 2010. 298(6): p. G797-G806.
  • Fottner, C., et al., In Vivo Molecular Imaging of Somatostatin Receptors in Pancreatic Islet Cells and Neuroendocrine Tumors by Miniaturized Confocal Laser-Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy. Endocrinology, 2010. 151(5): p. 2179-2188.
  • Goetz, M., et al., Simultaneous confocal laser endomicroscopy and chromoendoscopy with topical cresyl violet. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 2009. 70(5): p. 959-968.
  • Bao, H., et al. Imaging of goblet cells as a marker for intestinal metaplasia of the stomach by one-photon and two-photon fluorescence endomicroscopy. 2009. SPIE.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo confocal laser laparoscopy allows real time subsurface microscopy in animal models of liver disease. J Hepatol, 2008. 48(1): p. 91-7.
  • Kiesslich, R., et al., Identification of Epithelial Gaps in Human Small and Large Intestine by Confocal Endomicroscopy. Gastroenterology, 2007. 133(6): p. 1769-1778.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo subsurface morphological and functional cellular and subcellular imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with confocal mini-microscopy. World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG, 2007. 13(15): p. 2160-2165.

Rabbit

  • WU, J.-P., et al., The development of confocal arthroscopy as optical histology for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Journal of Microscopy, 2015. 259(3): p. 269-275.

Rat

  • Varga, G., et al., Acetylsalicylic acid-tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane reduces colon mucosal damage without causing gastric side effects in a rat model of colitis. Inflammopharmacology, 2018. 26(1): p. 261-271.
  • Mészáros, A.T., et al., Inhalation of methane preserves the epithelial barrier during ischemia and reperfusion in the rat small intestine. Surgery, 2017. 161(6): p. 1696-1709.
  • Varga, G., et al., Reduced mucosal side-effects of acetylsalicylic acid after conjugation with tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new anti-inflammatory compound. European Journal of Pharmacology, 2016. 781: p. 181-189.
  • Tuboly, E., et al., C5a inhibitor protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat small intestine. Microbiology and Immunology, 2016. 60(1): p. 35-46.
  • Strifler, G., Pathomechanism and therapeutic possibilities of mitochondrial dysfunction in ischemia-reperfusion, in Institute of Surgical Research. 2016, University of Szeged.
  • Martirosyan, N.L., et al., Handheld confocal laser endomicroscopic imaging utilizing tumor-specific fluorescent labeling to identify experimental glioma cells in vivo. Surgical Neurology International, 2016. 7(Suppl 40): p. S995-S1003.
  • Érces, D., et al., Complement C5a inhibition improves late hemodynamic and inflammatory changes in a rat model of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. Surgery, 2016. 159(3): p. 960-971

Sheep

  • Milligan, G.N., et al., Evaluation of immunological markers of ovine vaginal irritation: Implications for preclinical assessment of non-vaccine HIV preventive agents. Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 2017. 124: p. 38-43.
  • Vargas, G., et al., In Vivo Rectal Mucosal Barrier Function Imaging in a Large-Animal Model by Using Confocal Endomicroscopy: Implications for Injury Assessment and Use in HIV Prevention Studies. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2016. 60(8): p. 4600.

Swine

  • Martirosyan, N.L., et al., Potential application of a handheld confocal endomicroscope imaging system using a variety of fluorophores in experimental gliomas and normal brain. Neurosurg Focus, 2014. 36(2): p. E16.
  • Bari, G., Szűcs, S., Érces, D., Boros, M., & Varga, G. (2018). Experimental pericardial tamponade–translation of a clinical problem to its large animal model. Turkish Journal of Surgery,34(3), 205-211. doi:10.5152/turkjsurg.2018.4181

Brain

  • Leierseder, S., Confocal endomicroscopy during brain surgery. laser+photonics, 2018.
  • Izadyyazdanabadi, M., et al., Prospects for Theranostics in Neurosurgical Imaging: Empowering Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Diagnostics via Deep Learning. Front Oncol, 2018. 8: p. 240.
  • Izadyyazdanabadi, M., et al., Convolutional neural networks: Ensemble modeling, fine-tuning and unsupervised semantic localization for neurosurgical CLE images. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, 2018. 54: p. 10-20.
  • Izadyyazdanabadi, M., Improving utility of brain tumor confocal laser endomicroscopy: objective value assessment and diagnostic frame detection with convolutional neural networks. Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging – Proceedings of SPIE, 2018.
  • Belykh, E., et al., Probe-based three-dimensional confocal laser endomicroscopy of brain tumors: technical note. Cancer Management and Research, 2018. Volume 10: p. 3109-3123.
  • Izadyyazdanabadia M, E. Belykh, and N.L. Martirosyan, Improving utility of brain tumor confocal laser endomicroscopy: objective value assessment and diagnostic frame detection with convolutional neural networks. Proc. SPIE 10134, Medical Imaging 2017: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, 101342J, 2017.
  • Martirosyan, N.L., et al., Prospective evaluation of the utility of intraoperative confocal laser endomicroscopy in patients with brain neoplasms using fluorescein sodium: experience with 74 cases. Neurosurg Focus, 2016. 40(3): p. E11.
  • Sanai, N., et al., Intraoperative confocal microscopy for brain tumors: a feasibility analysis in humans. Neurosurgery, 2011. 68(2 Suppl Operative): p. 282-90; discussion 290.

Gastrointestinal Tract

  • Thong, P.S., et al., Toward real-time virtual biopsy of oral lesions using confocal laser endomicroscopy interfaced with embedded computing. J Biomed Opt, 2012. 17(5): p. 056009.
  • Haxel, B.R., et al., Confocal endomicroscopy: a novel application for imaging of oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in human. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 2010. 267(3): p. 443-448.
  • Stefanescu, D., et al., Computer Aided Diagnosis for Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Advanced Colorectal Adenocarcinoma. PLoS One, 2016. 11(5): p. e0154863.
  • Goetz, M., Enhanced Imaging of the Esophagus, in Barrett’s Esophagus. 2016. p. 123-132.
  • East, J.E., et al., Advanced endoscopic imaging: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Technology Review. Endoscopy, 2016. 48(11): p. 1029-1045.
  • Dolak, W., et al., A pilot study of confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosing gastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, 2016. 30(7): p. 2879-2885.
  • Chang, J., et al., The learning curve, interobserver, and intraobserver agreement of endoscopic confocal laser endomicroscopy in the assessment of mucosal barrier defects. Gastrointest Endosc, 2016. 83(4): p. 785-91 e1.
  • Goetz, M., Characterization of lesions in the stomach: will confocal laser endomicroscopy replace the pathologist? Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol, 2015. 29(4): p. 589-99.
  • Teubner, D., et al., Beyond standard image-enhanced endoscopy confocal endomicroscopy. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am, 2014. 24(3): p. 427-34.
  • Venkatesh, K., et al., A new method in the diagnosis of reflux esophagitis: confocal laser endomicroscopy. Gastrointest Endosc, 2012. 75(4): p. 864-9.
  • Kuiper, T., et al., The learning curve, accuracy, and interobserver agreement of endoscope-based confocal laser endomicroscopy for the differentiation of colorectal lesions. Gastrointest Endosc, 2012. 75(6): p. 1211-7.
  • Kiesslich, R., et al., Local barrier dysfunction identified by confocal laser endomicroscopy predicts relapse in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut, 2012. 61(8): p. 1146.
  • Lim, L.G., et al., Experienced versus inexperienced confocal endoscopists in the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma and intestinal metaplasia on confocal images. Gastrointest Endosc, 2011. 73(6): p. 1141-7.
  • Sanduleanu, S., et al., In Vivo Diagnosis and Classification of Colorectal Neoplasia by Chromoendoscopy-Guided Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2010. 8(4): p. 371-378.
  • Li, W.-B., et al., Characterization and identification of gastric hyperplastic polyps and adenomas by confocal laser endomicroscopy. Surgical Endoscopy, 2010. 24(3): p. 517-524.
  • Li, C.Q., et al., Classification of inflammation activity in ulcerative colitis by confocal laser endomicroscopy. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2010. 105(6): p. 1391-1396.
  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo molecular imaging of colorectal cancer with confocal endomicroscopy by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor. Gastroenterology, 2010. 138(2): p. 435-46.
  • Watson, A.J.M., et al., Mechanisms of Epithelial Cell Shedding in the Mammalian Intestine and Maintenance of Barrier Function. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2009. 1165(1): p. 135-142.
  • Trovato, C., et al., Confocal laser endomicroscopy diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma in a patient treated for gastric diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. Digestive and Liver Disease, 2009. 41(6): p. 447-449.
  • Trovato, C., et al., Confocal laser endomicroscopy for the detection of mucosal changes in ileal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy. Digestive and Liver Disease, 2009. 41(8): p. 578-585.
  • Sanduleanu, S., et al., Inflammatory cloacogenic polyp: diagnostic features by confocal endomicroscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 2009. 69(3): p. 595-598.
  • Leung, K.K., et al., Optical EMR: confocal endomicroscopy-targeted EMR of focal high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 2009. 69(1): p. 170-172.
  • Leong, R.W., et al., Editorial: Taking optical biopsies with confocal endomicroscopy. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia), 2009. 24(11): p. 1701-1703.
  • Dunbar, K.B., et al., Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Gastrointest Endosc, 2009. 70(4): p. 645-54.
  • Borschitz, T. and R.J.I.J.o.C.D. Kiesslich, Confocal chromolaser endomicroscopy: a supplemental diagnostic tool prior to transanal endoscopic microsurgery of rectal tumors? International Journal of Colorectal Disease, 2009. 25(1): p. 71.
  • Bojarski, C., Malignant transformation in inflammatory bowel disease: Prevention, surveillance and treatment – New techniques in endoscopy. Digestive Diseases, 2009. 27(4): p. 571-575.
  • Zhang, J.N., et al., Classification of gastric pit patterns by confocal endomicroscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 2008. 67(6): p. 843-853.
  • Günther, U., et al., In vivo diagnosis of intestinal spirochaetosis by confocal endomicroscopy. Gut, 2008. 57(9): p. 1331-1333.
  • Kiesslich, R., et al., Chromoscopy-guided endomicroscopy increases the diagnostic yield of intraepithelial neoplasia in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology, 2007. 132(3): p. 874-82.

Liver

  • Goetz, M., et al., In vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy of the human liver: a novel method for assessing liver microarchitecture in real time. Endoscopy, 2008. 40(7): p. 554-62.

Reproductive

  • Tan, J., et al., Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2009. 116(12): p. 1663-1670.
  • Tan, J., P. Delaney, and W.J. McLaren, Confocal endomicroscopy: A novel imaging technique for in vivo histology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Expert Review of Medical Devices, 2007. 4(6): p. 863-871.

Tendon &  Cartilage

  • Wu, J.-P., et al., The development of confocal arthroscopy as optical histology for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Journal of Microscopy, 2015. 259(3): p. 269-275.
  • Wu, J.P., T.B. Kirk, and M.H. Zheng, Study of the collagen structure in the superficial zone and physiological state of articular cartilage using a 3D confocal imaging technique. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 2008. 3(1).

Canine Stomach and Small Intestine

Images courtesy of Researchers at the University of Melbourne,
Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences

Rat Colon

A set of Rat Colonic Mucosa images, labelled with topical Acriflavine.  Select images have been colourised using ImageJ.

Mouse Gut Wall

Macrophages expressing MacGreen from a mouse gut wall. Images captured with FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) B30, with 3D Rendering completed using Imaris 8.3.

Images courtesy of Cameron Nowell, Dr. Daniel Poole and Pradeep Rajasekhar (PhD student) from Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Monash University, Melbourne Australia.

Calcium Imaging

Isolated gut wall stained with fluo 8. Image sequence captured in vivo using an Optiscan FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) Handheld Miniaturised (4mm Probe) Confocal Endomicroscope. Colour edited in YouTube to improve appearance. Image courtesy of Cameron Nowell, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Monash University, Melbourne Australia.

Advances in Sub-cellular and Cellular in vivo Imaging for Systems Biology

02:55 – Why is In Vivo microscopy important
08:18 – Overview of current In Vivo microscope technologies
17:24 – 3D image of visceral adipose tissue
25:26 – Explanation of miniaturized confocal microscopy
27:21 – The FIVE2 (ViewnVivo) system
28:23 – Illustrative examples of the FIVE2 (ViewnVivo)’s capabilities
44:08 – Bundled fibre vs point scanning technology
47:26 – Where does whole body fluorescence imaging fit into the mix
48:50 – Comments on 3D image generation
51:07 – Comments on the laser technology of the FIVE2 (ViewnVivo)
55:04 – Comments on depth and dyes for FIVE2 (ViewnVivo)

During this webinar, Peter Delaney (CTO, Optiscan Pty. Ltd) discusses unique combinations of advanced imaging instrumentation, fluorescent probes and key applications in terms of their capabilities, limitations and possibilities. Discussion centers on the importance of sub-cellular and cellular observations in vivo, often producing results counter to in vitro cellular behavior, and therefore streamlining research paths. In addition, he shares a variety of sample images, demonstrating novel capabilities in the world of high-resolution in vivo confocal endomicroscopy.