Applying and maintaining physiological pressures in cannulated blood vessels is a key factor in vascular research. Precise control of pressure, with or without intraluminal flow, is a paramount necessity. Our pressure instrumentation is designed to establish, control, and measure the intraluminal pressure during an experiment.

Our vessel chambers are precision machined from inert plastic that has chemical and physical properties superior to acrylics, and is more economical than stainless steel.

Constant Pressure

  • The vast majority of applications are well-served by constant pressure, no intraluminal flow setup
  • Distal end of vessel is occluded
  • Key components include a pressure source, vessel chamber, means for temperature control, and data acquisition hardware/software

Pressure Artiograph

Constant Pressure & Flow

  • Setup for intravascular flow is a bit more complex
  • Distal end of vessel remains open
  • In addition to the basic items for regulating intravascular pressure, you will also need a pump to control intraluminal solution flow and a way to monitor pressure on both sides of the cannulated vessel

Sals includimall animng mice rats  wire myograph myography

Parts of a Pressure Arteriograph

  • Vessel is mounted between the cannulae and tied in place with nylon thread (provided with the chamber)
  • Cannulae provide access to the lumen of the vessel.
  • Blood is flushed out of the vessel
  • Superfusion of desired buffer into chamber and into vessel
The CH-1 is Living System’s most versatile chamber design, and is ideal for experiments requiring vessel diameter measurements. This chamber is well-suited for use in widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy, or standard transmitted light microscopy, and allows visualization of blood vessels as small as 30 µm in diameter. Living System’s temperature controller (TC-09S) can be used to directly control or monitor bath temperature. For monitoring or controlling bath temperature, a bath thermistor sensor (THRS) is also required. Check out Living System’s self-heated single vessel chamber package (CH-1-SH) for self-heating temperature control applications.

  • Bath temperature control is achieved via superfusion
  • Can be used with temperature controller (TC-09S) for self-heating applications
  • Angled cannula holders allow positioning vessel near bottom coverglass surface for confocal use, or when working distance is an issue
  • Straight cannula holders for general use
  • Removable cover with gas ports for controlling atmospheric gas composition
    (e.g., hypoxia or anesthetic gases)
  • Optional platinum stimulation electrodes (STIM-1) can be used for nerve/muscle electrical field stimulation

Specifications

Bath Volume:                               3-8 ml
Dimensions:                                 13.08 cm W x 3.58 cm H x 9.0 cm D

The CH-2 chamber is used to optimize experimental throughput, allowing two vessels to be mounted side by side. This chamber can be used for wide-field or confocal fluorescence microscopy, as well as standard transmitted light microscopy. The dual vessel chamber is ideal for bioassay work where perfusate from one vessel is routed to the adjacent vessel. It allows visualization of blood vessels as small as 30 µm in diameter. Living System’s temperature controller (TC-09D) can be used to directly control or monitor bath temperature. For monitoring or controlling bath temperature, a bath thermistor sensor (THRS) is also required for each of the two vessel baths. Check out Living System’s self-heated dual vessel chamber package (LS-CH-2-SH) for self-heating temperature control applications.

Features

  • Used in cases where users want to have two vessels going simultaneously.
  • Use with temperature controller (TC-09D) for self-heating applications
  • Independent perfusion and superfusion ports
  • Monitor temperature in each bath using thermistor temperature sensor (THRS)
    (meter also required)
  • Angled cannula holders allow positioning vessel near bottom coverglass surface for confocal use, or when working distance is an issue
  • Straight cannula holders for general use
  • Removable covers with gas ports for controlling atmospheric gas composition (e.g., hypoxia or anesthetic gases)
  • Holder for pH electrode (PH-E) to monitor pH in either bath
  • Optional platinum stimulation electrodes (STIM-2) can be used for nerve/muscle electrical field stimulation
The CH-1-LIN Linear Alignment Vessel Chamber represents Living System’s latest design for their arteriograph line. Living System’s has incorporated three-axis (X-Y-Z) linear controls on both the proximal and distal cannulae arms. Cannulae can be easily aligned in three-dimensional space in just seconds using the simple thumb screws. No special tools are needed. The chamber is ideal for new users of pressure arteriographs, because alignment of the cannulae has been greatly simplified.

Key Features:

  • Cannula alignment is linear in all 3 axes. Greatly facilitates cannula alignment.
  • Proximal and distal cannulae can be easily adjusted in three-dimensional space.
  • Replacing broken glass cannulae has been simplified.
  • Optical window facilitating imaging studies
  • Available as a stand-alone chamber, or with self-heating capabilities
In some cases, such as when using expensive peptides or other drugs, bath superfusion is not an option. These applications call for minimizing the volume of bath fluid to keep the amount of reagents used to a minimum. In these cases, heating the bath to physiological temperatures can be problematic. However, with Living System’s single vessel chamber (CH-1) and temperature controller (TC-09S), you can heat the vessel chamber directly to physiological temperatures. This package contains everything needed to conduct these self-heating studies in a single vessel chamber.

Package Components

  • Single vessel chamber (CH-1)
  • Temperature controller (TC-09S)
  • Thermistor temperature sensor (THRS)
  • Heater, power, and signal output cables
Living System’s CH-2-SH package is designed to provide dual vessel chamber users an option for running experiments at physiological temperatures in the absence of bath superfusion. This package contains everything needed to run dual vessel chamber studies by heating the dual vessel chamber (CH-2) directly to the desired temperature.

Package Components

  • Dual vessel chamber (CH-2)
  • Temperature controller (TC-09D)
  • Two thermistor temperature sensors (THRS)
  • Heater, power, and signal output cables
Living System’s CH-1-LIN-SH contains everything needed to run vessel chamber studies by heating the linear alignment single vessel chamber directly to the desired temperature.

Includes:

  • Linear Alignment Single Vessel Chamber
  • Temperature Controller
  • Thermistor Temperature Sensor
  • Chamber Heater Cable
Suitable for cannulation & perfusion of large hollow organs, such as blood vessels (e.g. aorta, carotid), intestine, airway, mid-gut, or colon. The unique size of this chamber also makes it suitable for other applications, such as insect mid-gut cannulation.

Key Features

  • Can be used with 12, 14, 19, 22, and 25 gauge stainless steel canulae
  • Rigid stainless steel cannulae are virtually unbreakable
  • Tubing barb for thread ties to easily secure the attachment of your vessel
  • Optical viewing window for imaging studies, ideal for backlighting and viewing with a stereoscope
  • Both cannulae feature three axis (X-Y-Z) positioning for easy alignment and length adjustments
  • Make adjustments in seconds using simple thumb screws, no special tools required
  • Designed for superfusion applications
  • New thermistor for monitoring bath temperature using optional temperature controller (TC-09S, sold separately)
  • Waterproof connection port for the thermistor (IP67 rated)

Notes

  • Bath cannot be heated directly, heating of superfusate line requires an external heat exchanger (BATH-HEAT-CIRC) (GHE), and temperature controller (TC-09S)
  • Chamber shown with 20 gauge cannulae, sold separately

Specifications

Chamber Material:              Delrin, stainless steel
Mounting Type:                    Stainless Steel Cannulae
Vessel Size:                            500 µ – 4 mm
Dimensions:                          (overall): 8.22” L x 7.57” W x 2.39” H (20.89 x 19.23 x 6.07 cm)
Bath Volume:                        50 ml

 

This axially rotating single vessel chamber rotates the vessel to image adjacent cell structures using confocal or Nomarski optics. This is useful for injections of caged agents and observation after inversion. The angled cannula holders bring the vessel close to the coverslip for simultaneous diameter and fluorescence measurements, and pressure and perfusion is maintained during the rotation.

Optional standard cannula holders (RCH) can be used in this chamber. It is ideally suited for larger diameter vessels with longer lengths because it has a longer bath.

Advantages

  • Rotation angle continuously adjustable
  • Cannulas rotate together to prevent vessel twist (tool supplied)
  • Optional thermistor probe for bath temperature measurement (meter also required)
  • Vessel may be perfused and/or superfused
  • Chamber can be used for many experimental applications
  •  Transmural electric field stimulation electrodes (optional)

Specifications

Bath Volume:                        6–10 ml
Dimensions:                          13.08 cm W x 3.58 cm H x 9.0 cm D

This chamber is designed for rapid freezing or fixation of a cannulated and pressurized vessel for biochemical or morphometric studies.

One section of the CH-1-QT contains the experimental chamber where a superfused vessel may be examined for its diameter responses to pharmacological agents, pressure, flow, etc.

A glass coverslip allows visualization of the vessel for lumen diameter and wall measurements using the video dimension analyzer (VDA-10). The other section has a well that a removable tray fits into.

A lever arm is used to quickly transfer (~1 sec) the vessel and its tubing connections from the chamber to the tray. In this way, the physiological state of the vessel (pressure, myogenic tone, etc) can be maintained during the freezing or fixation process. The CH-1-QT will readily tolerate the low temperature of an acetone-dry ice freezing solution, liquid nitrogen, or various fixing solutions.

Specifications

Bath Volume:                                6-10ml
Dimensions:                                  13.08 cm W x 4.11 cm H x 9.0 cm D
Working Distance:                      requires minimum 1.8 mm WD objective lens

This miniature perfusion chamber is ideal for cellular physiology studies requiring bath superfusion in a low volume.

The chamber fits on the stage of an inverted microscope.  Mounting holes are included for inflow and outflow tubes.  In addition, you can use magnetic accessories by attaching them to the embedded metal block.

Does not include magnetic tube holder accessory.

Specifications

Base: Width:                           44.5 mm Length: 88.9 mm Thickness: 6.4 mm
Tube Pedestal:                        5.8 mm Tall
Metal Block:                            Width: 11.1 mm Length: 43.3 mm
Bath Volume:                          0.5 to 0.8 ml
(approximate)

This versatile sealed singe vessel chamber can be used for long-term vessel perfusion, vessel culture, gene transfer, remodeling studies and extravascular compression.

Features

  • Vessel may be perfused and/or superfused
  • Steady or pulsatile pressures may be applied extravascularly
  • Angled cannula holders for simultaneous diameter and fluorescence (e.g., Ca2+) or confocal measurements
  • Chamber can be used for many experimental applications
  • Removable cover
  • Also available in self-heating model
  • Not compatible with platinum stimulation electrodes (stim-1. stim-2)

Specifications

Bath Volume:                                             3-8ml
Dimensions:                                               13.08 cm W x 5.21 cm H x 11.1 cm D

This is the self-heated package containing Living System’s CH-1-AU Sealed Single Vessel Chamber.

Package contains:

  • CH-1-AU Sealed Vessel Chamber
  • TC-09S Temperature Controller
  • THRS Thermistor
  • Heater, signal output, and power cables

The PM-4 is ideally suited for isolated, perfused vessel studies to aid the investigator in ensuring that a perfused vessel is exposed to a desired physiological pressure. The device has two pressure input channels, enabling the measurement of upstream and downstream pressure, average pressure, and pressure differential across a cannulated blood vessel. It can also be used for measuring the pressures at two locations in a vessel bed or isolated tissue. In conjunction with Living System’s pressure servo controller (PS-200), a transmural vessel pressure or a perfusion pressure may automatically be maintained during perfusion.

The PM-4 also features four analog voltage outputs, which can be used to record pressure on both pressure channels, the pressure differential between the two pressure inputs, and the average of both pressure inputs.

Includes two pressure transducers (PT-F).

Specifications

Pressure range:                                                0 to 200 mmHg; 0.1 mmHg resolution; ± 1% linearity; 3
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa samples/sec display update
Analog outputs:                                               10 mV/mmHg; 0–200 mmHg; <15 ms
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa response time; ± 1% linearity
Dimensions / weight:                                     14.5 cm W x 6.5 cm H x 17.5 cm D / 0.3 kg
Power:                                                                 100–120 V/60 Hz or 200–240 V/50 Hz

The PM-P-1 is designed to accurately monitor and subsequently record any single physiological pressure. It is ideal for use in many settings and requires no electrical outlet. It features an analog voltage output that can be recorded on your data acquisition system and comes equipped with long life batteries. A PT-F Pressure Transducer is included.

Specifications

Pressure Range:                                            -50 – 300 mmHg: 1 mmHg resolution ± 1% linearit
Analog Outputs:                                            10 mV/mmHg; -50 – 300mmHg <15 ms
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa response time; ± 1% linearity
Pressure Transducers:                                 0.04 mm³/100 mmHg volume displacement
Dimensions/Weight:                                     12cm W x 16.5cm H x 4.75cm Deep / 0.43 kg                    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa (with batteries)
Power:                                                               2, AA Batteries
The pressure servo controller with peristaltic pump is used to precisely control the intravascular pressure in isolated cannulated blood vessels. Many other uses are also possible, including maintaining pressure in isolated organ beds, gastrointestinal tissue, urinary tract, or lymphatics. This instrument is ideally suited for examination of myogenic responsiveness of isolated cannulated blood vessels.

Use the PS-200 to achieve either a constant pressure (pressure mode; 0 to 200 mmHg) or a constant flow rate (flow mode; 3 µl/min to 2.4 ml/min, depending on tube set used—see FC-TS). The PS-200 comes with one piece of FC-TS-031 tubing, one piece of FC-TS-093 tubing, and one PT-F pressure transducer.

In the pressure mode of operation, a flow-through pressure transducer placed in-line with the blood vessel, or other biological preparation, senses the pressure and a miniature peristaltic pump operates to maintain pressure at the user-specified set-point. In the flow mode of operation, the peristaltic pump supplies a user-defined constant flow rate, and the pressure transducer monitors perfusion pressure. Pressure is indicated directly in mmHg on a digital panel meter in both modes, and is available as an analog output voltage for data acquisition. Pressure or flow set-points may also be programmed through an external voltage signal applied to the instrument.

Specifications

Pressure range:                                                         0–200 mmHg
Panel meter reading:                                              ±1 mmHg
Pressure signal output:                                          10 mV/mmHg
External input signal:                                              1 V for 100 mmHg
Power supply:                                                            100–120 V/60 Hz or 200–240 V/50 Hz
Perfusion flow rate:                                                 3 µl/min–2.4 ml/min* *Depending on tube set used
Dimensions / weight:                                               control unit: 11 cm W x 13 cm H x 36 cm D
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 2.3 kg pump unit: 11 cm W x 13 cm H x 15 cm D / 0.9 kg
This miniature peristaltic pump delivers precise volume flow rates over a range determined by the setting of two calibrated potentiometer controls, and the tube set size chosen. It is similar to the pump used in the pressure servo control unit (PS-200).

Features

  • Flow output signal
  • External voltage control of flow rate

Specifications 

Volume flow range:                                        3 µl/min–2.4 ml/min Power DC supply or
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabattery (9 V), depending on tube set used.
Dimensions:                                                      6 cm W x 6 cm H x 10 cm D

The FI-1 provides a digital readout of the flow rate delivered by the FC flow control pump or the PS-200 pressure servo control pump. Flow rate can be monitored directly on the front-panel meter in µl/min, or using the analog voltage output signal, which is compatible with most data acquisition systems. The FI-1 also has a connector that enables remote control of flow rate using a D/A output or other analog voltage source.

Specifications

Flow rate:                                                      0–25 through 0–500 µl/min ranges
Standard ranges:                                       25, 50, 100, 200, 500 µl/min
Accuracy:                                                      ±3% ±1 µl/min (over 5% to 100% of range maximum)
Precision:                                                     ±1% or 0.1 µl/min
Panel meter resolution:                          ±0.1 µl/min
Output signal:                                             10 mV/µl/min
Response time:                                           < 1 s
Power:                                                           117 V/60 Hz or 230 V/50 Hz

This quality peristaltic pump is ideal for vessel bath superfusion. The pump includes two flow heads, one for delivering solution to the bath (inflow), and one for removing fluid from the bath (outflow).

Use INFLOW-IT-44-PKG4 tubing for the inflow side;
and use OUTFLOW-IT-48-PKG4 tubing for the outflow side.

Features:
•Easily adjustable speed control
•Start/stop and direction control
•Can be operated by remote control signal (DB15)
•12 rollers on pump heads minimize flow pulsations
•Click-n-go mini cartridges provide easy tubing change
•Uses 3-stop tube sets

Specifications

Typical Applications:                                       +Superfusion of vessel and tissue baths +organ perfusion
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa +General purpose fluid delivery applications
Dimensions:                                                         134.9 mm D x 177.8 mm W x 101.6 mm H
Max Flow Rate:                                                   34 (ml/min)
Flow Range:                                                          0.07 to 34 (ml/min)
Max Pressure:                                                     1.5 bar, 22 psi
Flow Rate Range 1:                                            with INFLOW-IT-44 Tubing: 0.55 to 27 ml/min
Flow Rate Range 2:                                           with OUTFLOW-IT-48 Tubing: 0.69 to 34 ml/min

This quality peristaltic pump is ideal for vessel bath superfusion. The pump includes four flow heads which can be configured in several ways.

For example:
– four inflow lines
– four outflow lines
– two inflow & two outflow lines.

Use INFLOW-IT-44-PKG4 tubing for inflow side; Use OUTFLOW-IT-48-PKG4 tubing for outflow side

Specifications

Typical Applications:                                 +Superfusion of vessel and tissue baths +organ perfusion
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa +General purpose fluid delivery applications
Dimensions:                                                  134.9 mm D x 177.8 mm W x 101.6 mm H
Max Flow Rate:                                            75 (ml/min)
Flow Range:                                                  0.0075 to 75 (ml/min)
Flow Rate Range 1:                                     with INFLOW-IT-44 Tubing: 0.60 to 60 ml/min
Flow Rate Range 2:                                     with OUTFLOW-IT-48 Tubing: 0.75 to 75 ml/min

Living System’s thermal circulating bath is an economical heating circulator that includes the immersion heater unit, water bath, and circulating pump. The unit has a small footprint and low profile. Living System’ssearched many suppliers before we arrived at this unit, which delivers solid performance and economical prices.

Specifications

Reservoir capacity:                               6 L
Temperature range:                             5 °C over ambient to 150 °C
Temperature stability:                        ± 0.05 °C
Temperature readout:                        ºC or ºF
Pump inlet and outlet:                        0.25″ FPT
Input voltage:                                         120 V or 220 V, 50 or 60 Hz
Dimensions:                                            8.25″ W x 14.25″ H x 14″ D
Shipping weight:                                   23 lbs

Living System’s temperature controllers feature unsurpassed thermoregulatory performance. A novel control algorithm results in quicker time to reach set point (6–10 min, from 22 ºC to 37 ºC). Living System’s temperature controllers now feature analog outputs that produce signals compatible with most data acquisition systems. The thermostat control can also be disabled, allowing the TC-09S to be used as a temperature monitoring and recording device (using the analog output).

The TC-09S is designed to control the bath temperature in Living System’s CH-1 single vessel chambers under steady-state conditions, when bath superfusion is not used. This is particularly useful when you have a stagnant bath with a HEPES or MOPS buffered saline solution. The temperature controller is not able to regulate bath temperature in the presence of bath superfusion. In that case, it is preferable to use a heat exchanger in your superfusion line to warm the bath saline just before it enters the vessel bath.

Specification

Power:                                                            120 V or 220 V
Control limits:                                              ambient to 50 ºC
Accuracy:                                                       ±1 ºC
Time to reach 37 ºC:                                   6–10 min
(from 22 ºC)   
Analog output:                                             10 mV/0.1 ºC

Living System’s controllers feature unsurpassed thermoregulatory performance. A novel control algorithm results in quicker time to reach set point (6–10 min, from 22 ºC to 37 ºC). Living System’s temperature controllers now feature analog outputs that produce signals compatible with most data acquisition systems. The TC-09D has two heating controllers that can be used to regulate the bath temperature in the two baths of our CH-2 vessel chambers independently. The thermostat control can also be disabled, allowing the TC-09D to be used as a temperature monitoring and recording device (when using the analog output). Panel controls allow for regulating the bath temperature of both chambers, chamber 1 only, chamber 2 only, or monitor only (no temperature control).

The TC-09D is designed to control the bath temperature in Living System’s CH-2 dual vessel chambers under steady-state conditions, when bath superfusion is not used. This is particularly useful when you have a stagnant bath with a HEPES or MOPS buffered saline solution. The temperature controller is not able to regulate bath temperature in the presence of bath superfusion. In that case, it is preferable to use a heat exchanger in your superfusion line to warm the bath saline just before it enters the vessel bath.

Specification

Power:                                                                120 V or 220 V
Control limits:                                                 ambient to 50 ºC
Accuracy:                                                          ±1 ºC
Time to reach 37 ºC:                                      6–10 min
(from 22 ºC)   
Analog output:                                                10 mV/0.1 ºC

This meter provides a display of the temperature sensed by any of our thermistor temperature sensors. The THS-TEE sensor plugs directly into the TH-M meter. If you would like to monitor the temperature in one of our vessel baths using the THRS sensor a special cable is also required.
pH Meter

This high quality pH meter provides a continuous readout of pH. The pH electrode connects to the meter via a BNC connector. Use with PH-E or PH-TEE electrodes.

Specifications

pH range:                                                                            0–14, 0.01 resolution
Power:                                                                                  3 AAA batteries
Dimensions / weight:                                                      6.1″ H x 1.8″ W x 1.4″ D / 0.3 lb

a

pH Miniature Electrode 

This miniature pH electrode allows continuous pH monitoring in the bath solution of our vessel chambers. The PH-E is designed to fit inside the accessory port on the top of our standard vessel chamber covers. Reference solution is included.
Standard BNC termination; connects with most pH meters (see PH-M).

Specifications

pH sensitivity:                                                           0–14
Response time:                                                         5–15 sec solution and electrode: 3 mM KCl & Ag/AgCl
Dimensions:                                                              tip:~1.2 mm diameter body: 2.5 mm diameter length: 26 mm

a

pH-TEE Miniature Electrode Flow-Thru Min Tee

This miniature electrode provides continuous pH monitoring and can be placed in-line with the flow path, such as with perfusate or superfusate connections of cannulated vessel chambers. Equipped with luer-lock male fittings, it is compatible with all pH meters.

This electrode can also be used in combination with our in-line “tee-mounted” thermistor (THS-TEE) for combined temperature and pH measurements. Reference solution included. Standard BNC termination; connects with most pH meters (see PH-M).

Specifications

pH sensitivity:                                                           0–14
Response time:                                                         5–15 sec solution and electrode: 3 mM KCl & Ag/AgCl
Dimensions:                                                              40 mm x 60 mm (excluding 2 m cable)
Video Camera – HDMI

These high-quality video cameras are perfect for measuring blood vessel diameter using Living Systems Instrumentation video dimension analyzer (VDA-10), which only processes the luma portion of the video signal (“gray scale”), regardless of camera type (color or monochrome) used. With this camera package, the HDMI camera output is converted to the standard composite video signal that is delivered to Living Systems VDA-10 over a BNC cable.

This package contains the following items: video camera, HDMI cable, and HDMI to composite (analog) video converter.

Note that the HDMI signal does not go directly to a monitor; it must pass through the composite video converter to be processed by the VDA-10.

Specifications

Sensor type:                                                                         1/2.8″ CMOS (SONY: IMX136)
Video output:                                                                      DVI (via HDMI connector)
Lens mount:                                                                        C-mount
Exposure control:                                                              Auto or Manual
Dimensions / weight:                                                       Camera Body: (WxHxD) 40 x 40 x 51.1 mm / 4.1 oz (116 g)

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Video Dimension Analyzer

This hardware edge detector tracks blood vessel diameter, and left and right wall thicknesses using an analog video signal. The principle of the instrument is based on sensing optical density changes of the vessel image at a chosen scan line seen on the TV monitor. The VDA-10 is well-suited for applications where a recording of blood vessel diameter and wall thickness is required.

The VDA-10 tracks vessels ranging from 50 to 350 µm in diameter. In some cases, particularly larger vessels, or those with thick walls, only the outside diameter can be measured. These measurements are displayed on digital panel meters, and analog voltage outputs provide signals suitable for recording using most popular lab data acquisition systems (e.g., DAQ-PRO-U). Changes in blood vessel dimensions (constriction or dilation) are followed in real time.

Applications

  • Record lumen diameter as a function of drug concentration, pressure, perfusate flow, membrane potential, and neurotransmitter release
  • Measure vasomotion, myogenic responses, and cardiac cell dimensions
  • Calculate wall tension and wall stress
  • Observe the influence of endothelium on vascular responses

Features

  • Continuous display of lumen diameter and wall thickness as vessel changes size
  • Eliminates subjectivity in measurement
  • Calibrated analog voltage outputs for data acquisition
  • Simplified operating controls including enhanced left & right vessel wall window start/width control
  • VCR recorded images may be analyzed for additional data
  • Video can be saved to VCR tape or computer disk using analog frame grabbers

Specifications

Outputs—analog voltage signals:                                  10 mV/µm
Digital meter reading:                                                       1 µm
Measurement precision:                                                  1–2 µm
Analog output signal update rate:                                = 60/sec.
Power:                                                                                    100–120 V/60 Hz or 200–240 V/50 Hz – 1 A Max.
Dimensions:                                                                         13.3 cm x 21.3 cm x 30.5 cm (HxWxD) 5.25 in x 8.4 in x
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa  a 12 in (HxWxD)
Weight:                                                                                   3.4 kg/ 7.5 lbs
Living System’s offer 4 packages (1, 2, 4 or 8 channels) that are useful for applications requiring electric field stimulation. Each package includes a constant current stimulator(s), power supply cabinet, computer interface card, CATSTIM software, and interface cables. The output of each stimulator is accessible via a BNC connector.

Features

  • Isolated output eliminates the need for an external stimulus isolation unit
  • Perform completely independent stimulation protocols in each tissue bath or vessel chamber
  • Constant current stimulus in a low impedance solution such as physiological saline solution
  • Isolated monitor output allows the user to view the stimulus waveform using a separate oscilloscope
  • Stimulator parameters are set in the user-friendly CATSTIM software
  • Can be programmed to automatically deliver a sequence of stimulations using protocol files to encode the stimuli
  • No confusing knobs or switches to set
The extravascular pressure (EvP) in the sealed chamber is sensed by a solid-state pressure transducer. The signal from this transducer is connected to the pressure control unit where it is compared with either the internal pressure signal set by the pressure dial, or one of the external pressure signals fed into either the function generator or signal generator input jacks. Any difference between these two signals regulates the electronic servo valve output pressure so that the two pressures are the same.

Internal Pressure Signal Mode

The signal corresponding to the pressure dial setting calibrated in mmHg establishes the extravascular chamber pressure. This pressure is sustained until a new pressure is selected. The panel meter reading shows the chosen extravascular pressure in mmHg which can be accessed for data acquisition at the rear panel pressure signal jack.

External Pressure Signal Mode

Various extravascular pressure waveshapes can be created to match external input signals in this mode. The actual extravascular pressure can be accessed for data acquisition at the rear panel pressure signal jack.
Function generator signals can be obtained from a computer program written by the user and a computer having a D/A computer board that supplies analog voltages of 10 mV/mmHg. In this way, various simple or complex, time-dependent pressures can be applied to the chamber.

Specifications

Pressure range:                                                            0–250 mmHg
Pressure output signal:                                             10 mV/mmHg
External input signal:                                                10 mV/mmHg
Power:                                                                            100–120 VAC/60 Hz or 200–240 VAC/50 Hz
Dimensions/weight:                                                   13 cm H x 11 cm W x 36 cm L / 3.1 kg
Living System’s Trinocular Inverted Microscope is an great choice for a vascular biology laboratory. It includes many features like AIS infinity corrected optical components, and delivers solid return.

Benefits:

  • EWF 10x focus-able eyepieces with rubber eye guards, 22 mm field of view
  • Trinocular viewing head with photo tube
  • Includes 4X, 10X, and 20X objective lenses
  • Includes a plain stage with glass and metal stage plate inserts that can be replaced with an optional mechanical stage
  • Coaxial fine and coarse focus adjustments
  • Can be upgraded with an optional epifluorescence kit
  • Optional tilting ergonomic trinocular heads are available
  • Includes blue, green, and ground glass diffuser filters
  • Includes dust cover
  • Backed by limited 5 year warranty

Specifications

Light Path:                                               Binocular: 100% eyepieces Trinocular: 20% eyepieces/80% photo tube                                                                                                  Interpupillary Distance: 48-75 mm Eyepieces: 10X EWF                                                                                                                              focusable 22 mm field of view 48-75 mm                                                                                    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaainterpupillary distance; ±5 diopter adjustments; eyepieces accept 26 mm reticles
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Objective Lenses: AIS Infinity Corrected Plan Achromat 4X, 10X,  and 20X

Stage:           
                                              Fixed Plain Stage: 160 mm x 250 mm with glass insert Condenser Lens ELWD: 72                                                                             mm working distance; N.A. 0.3 Illumination: 6 V 30 W Halogen, variable Koehler

General:                                                     Power: 100-240 V, 60 Hz; Fuse 2 A Warranty: 5 Year Shipping Dimensions: 34                                                                                aapounds, 19” x 16” x 26”

The signal generator provides extravascular sinusoidal or pulse pressure (EvP) waveshape signals to the sealed chamber via a cable connection to the EV-1 when used in external signal mode. User-friendly pushbuttons are used to program upper and lower limits of the pressures as well as pulses per minute and other parameters that may best suit the experimenter’s protocol.

Specifications

Sine:                                                                           Extravascular systolic & diastolic pressure ranges: 0–250 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa  mmHg* Pulse rate: 30–360 pulses/min*
Pulse:                                                                         Extravascular systolic & diastolic pressure ranges: 0–250 aaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa   mmHg* Pressure rate: 1–50 mmHg/s* Extravascular systolic aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa    & diastolic durations: 1–999 sec (16.7 min), or greater*
Power:                                                                       100–120 VAC/60 Hz or 200–240 VAC/50 Hz
Dimensions / weight:                                             22.5 cm L x 7.5 cm H x 17.5 cm W / 1.0 kg

NOTE:*Pulse rates and pressure ranges are interdependent.

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Acute but not chronic hyperoxia increases metabolic rate without altering the cardiorespiratory response in Atlantic salmon alevins.

Elias TP, Nicholas GE, and Peter BF.

Aquaculture
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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.12.041

Biomechanical analyses of ventricular and vascular function in disease models

Golob, Mark J.. The University of Wisconsin – Madison, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2017. 10282374.

Effect of Stilbenoid Polyphenols on Resistance Artery Structure and Mechanical Properties in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure Rat

Lee, D.I.
Lee, Danielle. “Effect of stilbenoid polyphenols on resistance artery structure and mechanical properties in the spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rat.” (2017).
Master’s Thesis, University of Manitoba. http://hdl.handle.net/1993/32368

Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging

DuPont, J.J., McCurley, A., Davel, A.P., McCarthy, J., Bender, S.B., Hong, K., Yang, Y., Yoo, J.K., Aronovitz, M., Baur, W.E., Christou, D.D., Hill, M.A., and Jaffe, I.Z.

Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging.  (2016).  JCI Insight 1(14):e88942.  doi:10.1172/jci.insight.88942

Traumatic brain injury causes endothelial dysfunction in the systemic microcirculation through arginase-1-dependent uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

Villalba, N., Sackheim, A., Nunez, I., Hill-Eubanks, D., Nelson, M.T., Wellman, G.C., and Freeman, K.  Traumatic brain injury causes endothelial dysfunction in the systemic microcirculation through arginase-1-dependent uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.  (2016).  J. Neurotrauma.  January 2016, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/neu.2015.4340.

Chai, Q., Lu, T., Wang, X. L. and Lee, H. C. Hydrogen sulfide impairs shear stress-induced vasodilation in mouse coronary arteries. (2015). Pflugers Arch. 467 (2): 329-340.

Mechanism of hydralazine-induced relaxation in resistance arteries during pregnancy: Hydralazine induces vasodilation via a prostacyclin pathway

Maille, N., Gokina, N., Mandala, M., Colton, I. and Osol, G. Mechanism of hydralazine-induced relaxation in resistance arteries during pregnancy: Hydralazine induces vasodilation via a prostacyclin pathway. (2015). Vascul Pharmacol. 26196301

Transcriptome Analysis for Notch3 Target Genes Identifies Grip2 as a Novel Regulator of Myogenic Response in the Cerebrovasculature

Fouillade, C., Baron-Menguy, C., Domenga-Denier, V., Thibault, C., Takamiya, K., Huganir, R. and Joutel, A. Transcriptome Analysis for Notch3 Target Genes Identifies Grip2 as a Novel Regulator of Myogenic Response in the Cerebrovasculature. (2013). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 33 (1): 76-86.

Selective Involvement of Serum Response Factor in Pressure-Induced Myogenic Tone in Resistance Arteries

Retailleau, K., Toutain, B., Galmiche, G., Fassot, C., Sharif-Naeini, R., Kauffenstein, G., Mericskay, M., Duprat, F., Grimaud, L., Merot, J., Lardeux, A., Pizard, A., Baudrie, V., Jeunemaitre, X., Feil, R., Gothert, J. R., Lacolley, P., Henrion, D., Li, Z. and Loufrani, L. Selective Involvement of Serum Response Factor in Pressure-Induced Myogenic Tone in Resistance Arteries. (2013). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 33 (2): 339-346.

Pregnancy causes diminished myogenic tone and outward hypotrophic remodeling of the cerebral vein of Galen

van der Wijk, A. E., Schreurs, M. P. H. and Cipolla, M. J. Pregnancy causes diminished myogenic tone and outward hypotrophic remodeling of the cerebral vein of Galen. (2013). Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. 23281424

Reduced vascular smooth muscle BK channel current underlies heart failure-induced vasoconstriction in mice

Wan, E., Kushner, J. S., Zakharov, S., Nui, X., Chudasama, N., Kelly, C., Waase, M., Doshi, D., Liu, G. and Iwata, S. Reduced vascular smooth muscle BK channel current underlies heart failure-induced vasoconstriction in mice. (2013). The FASEB Journal. 23325318

Lymphatic filariasis: Perspectives on lymphatic remodeling and contractile dysfunction in filarial disease pathogenesis

Chakraborty, S., Gurusamy, M., Zawieja, D. C. and Muthuchamy, M. Lymphatic filariasis: Perspectives on lymphatic remodeling and contractile dysfunction in filarial disease pathogenesis. (2012). Microcirculation. 23237232

Distinct endothelial pathways underlie sexual dimorphism in vascular autoregulation

Chan, M. V., Bubb, K. J., Noyce, A., Villar, I. C., Duchene, J., Hobbs, A. J., Scotland, R. S. and Ahluwalia, A. Distinct endothelial pathways underlie sexual dimorphism in vascular autoregulation. (2012). British Journal of Pharmacology. 167 (4): 805-817.

Low-shear red blood cell oxygen transport effectiveness is adversely affected by transfusion and further worsened by deoxygenation in sickle cell disease patients on chronic transfusion therapy

Detterich, J., Alexy, T., Rabai, M., Wenby, R., Dongelyan, A., Coates, T., Wood, J. and Meiselman, H. Low-shear red blood cell oxygen transport effectiveness is adversely affected by transfusion and further worsened by deoxygenation in sickle cell disease patients on chronic transfusion therapy. (2012). Transfusion.

Renovascular hypertension impairs formation of endothelium‐derived relaxing factors and sensitivity to endothelin‐1 in resistance arteries

Dohi, Y., Criscione, L. and Lüscher, T. F. Renovascular hypertension impairs formation of endothelium‐derived relaxing factors and sensitivity to endothelin‐1 in resistance arteries. (2012). British journal of pharmacology. 104 (2): 349-354.

Propensity matched analysis of bilateral internal mammary artery versus single left internal mammary artery grafting at 17-year follow-up: validation of a contemporary surgical experience

Grau, J. B., Ferrari, G., Mak, A. W., Shaw, R. E., Brizzio, M. E., Mindich, B. P., Strobeck, J. and Zapolanski, A. Propensity matched analysis of bilateral internal mammary artery versus single left internal mammary artery grafting at 17-year follow-up: validation of a contemporary surgical experience. (2012). Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 41 (4): 770-775; discussion 776.

Increased myoendothelial gap junctions mediate the enhanced response to epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and acetylcholine in mesenteric arterial vessels of cirrhotic rats

Bolognesi, M., Zampieri, F., Di Pascoli, M., Verardo, A., Turato, C., Calabrese, F., Lunardi, F., Pontisso, P., Angeli, P., Merkel, C., Gatta, A. and Sacerdoti, D. Increased myoendothelial gap junctions mediate the enhanced response to epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and acetylcholine in mesenteric arterial vessels of cirrhotic rats. (2011). Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. 31 (6): 881-890.

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Metoprolol impairs resistance artery function in mice

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Migraine models

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Combinations of hydrostatic pressure and shear stress influence morphology and adhesion molecules in cultured endothelial cells

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