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Rat Telemetry System2018-11-14T16:37:59-04:00

Rat Telemetry Systems

Kaha implantable wireless telemeters provide high definition, quality and reliability in the recording of ventricular pressure, arterial pressure, sympathetic nerve activity, ECG, EMG or EEG in conscious, active rats over 175 grams. These parameters are particularly useful in cardiovascular and safety pharmacology and toxicology studies.  The Kaha Rat Telemetry System is ideal for recording from free-moving animals and for studies with a long duration.

An important concern in physiological monitoring is animal stress.  Animal handling and restraint during monitoring can produce variability in physiological signals.  Similarly, anesthesia can also influence these parameters.  The Kaha Sciences Rat Telemetry System eliminates this stress as wireless telemeters record data in conscious, mobile animals.

The Rat Telemetry System also offers a Cohousing feature to record multiple telemeter signals in the one cage.  This features allows either two rats, each implanted with a telemeter to be housed together or recording from two telemeters in one larger (>350 gram) rat.

The Kaha Rat Telemetry System includes the telemeter, SmartPad and Configurator.  The SmartPad has output connections to allow integration with any data acquisition system with analog inputs.

Kaha Sciences - TR181 SmartPad Cohousing
Kaha Sciences - TR181 SmartPad Cage

How does the Rat Telemetry System Work?

The system combines digital telemetry with patented wireless power technology all in a single piece of equipment, the SmartPad.  Key benefits of the Kaha wireless technology include:

  • Constant data collection (days to weeks) at a high frequency (2kHz) when the cage is housed on the SmartPad.
  • Up to 4-6 hours of reliable high frequency sampling if the animal is at a distance up to 5 meters from the SmartPad.
  • Reliable data recording capabilities from multiple animals simultaneously – 40 independent data collection frequencies with no interference.
Kaha Sciences - Telemetry Compilation

Advantages of Telemetry

Conscious. Following surgery recovery, data is recorded from conscious animals moving within their cage. Conscious recording also eliminates any possible effects of anesthesia on physiological parameters.

Unrestrained. Animal handling and restraint can induce a stress response. Telemetry eliminates this type of unnecessary animal stress.

Long-term. Telemetry data recording allows researchers to observe the development of pathology over days, weeks or months without worrying about missing a specific timepoint.  This also allows for within-animal experimental design which can enhance statistical power, necessitating fewer animals.

Advanced Telemetry Technology

Digital data transmission, wireless inductive power supply and battery backup enable 24/7 digital data collection from telemeters implanted in freely moving, conscious animals living in their home cages.

System Benefits

  • Wireless – power and data recording

  • Long-term recording (days, weeks, months)

  • Reduced animal stress: no handling, restraint or anesthesia

  • Fewer animals and reduced expense

  • Within-animal design

  • 24-hour continuous recording

Traditional Telemetry vs. Kaha Sciences Rat Telemetry

Traditional TelemetryKaha Sciences Rat Telemetry
SignalsLow fidelity pressure, temperature, activity, low frequency biopotentialHigh-fidelity ventricular and arterial pressure, temperature, SNA, low and high frequency biopotential, tissue oxygen
Sampling Frequency250 to 500 HzUp to 2 kHz
TransmissionAll transmitters send data on a single frequencyDigital transmission offers up to 40 individual transmission frequencies
Animal SizeMice, rats and largerRats (>175 g)
Housing ArrangementTelemetered animals must be individually housedCan house up to two telemetered rats per cage with cohousing feature enabled
Recording RangeUp to 1 mUp to 5 m
Monitor DurationLimited by battery lifeWireless power, rechargeable backup battery in vivo
Continuous DataLimited by battery lifeTrue 24/7 recording
RefurbishmentNeed to monitor battery state, refurbish when lowNo refurbishment waiting or cost, just recharge and continue
Output FormatProprietary interfaceStandard analog voltage

Rat System Configuration

A typical telemetry system consists of one SmartPad and telemeter per animal and one Configurator per laboratory.  The Kaha Rat Telemetry System is easily customizable for your specific application i.e. once the Telemeter and SmartPad have been paired, no further configuration is required, the outputs are set and ready to collect data. The unique Cohousing feature allows data collection from two separately telemetered animals in the same cage or the option of having two different telemeters, in a single animal (>350 g), allowing the measurement of up to four physiological signals.

Basic system setup is completed in three easy steps…

[1] → Select and pair transmission frequencies between the SmartPad and Telemeters

[2] → Using sterile techniques surgically implant the telemeter in the animal

[3] → Connect the BNC analog outputs of the SmartPad to your data acquisition system

Kaha Sciences - TR181 SmartPad Config

Cohousing

The Kaha Sciences rat telemetry Cohousing feature extends research opportunities by allowing:

  • Two rats (>175g each), each implanted with one telemeter to be housed together in a single cage, or

  • One rat (>350g) to be implanted with two telemeters (e.g. Oxygen + dual pressure or oxygen + SNA with pressure)

With Cohousing, the system continues to regulate the power supplied to both telemeters seamlessly while collecting continuous data with the expected accuracy and quality. Cohousing still requires one SmartPad per telemeter, as well as a Configurator System for the laboratory.

Existing systems can be upgraded to use the Cohousing feature without the need to purchase additional hardware. A firmware upgrade may be required for existing SmartPads (TR181 & TR180) and Configurators (see table below for details). Cohousing also requires ConfigSoft software version 3.0 or later.

UpgradeableAlready Cohousing Enabled
 TR181 SmartPadAllSerial numbers 10050 and above
TR180 SmartPadSerial numbers 5444 and above
TR190 ConfiguratorAllSerial numbers 9788 and above
Kaha Sciences - Cohousing System

Rat System Telemeters

Rat telemeters measure different physiological parameters including bipotential, pressure, sympathetic nerve activity and tissue oxygen.

Key features of Kaha telemeters include:

  • Wireless power and charging with SmartPad
  • Data transmission range up to 5 meters
  • No need for refurbishment with wireless power and rechargeable backup battery
  • Cohousing feature
Product Specifications
Temperature Operating Range8 to 41 degrees Celsius
Sampling Frequency2 kHz
Low Pass Filter Cut-Off Frequency (SmartPad)1 kHz
Transmission RangeUp to 5 m (may depend on laboratory environment)
Transmitted Signal2.4 GHz, fully digital
Transmission Frequencies40 available; configured by user
Minimum Rat Weight175 g
Outer MaterialMedical Grade Silicone
Weight~12.5 g
Dimensions31.5 x 24 x 11 mm
Battery LifeContinuous charging on SmartPad. Out of SmartPad charging field, battery life is ~ 4.6 hours
Recharge Time3 hours minimum
Power On / OffActivation of SmartPad & deactivation by Configurator System
Analog Output Calibration ValuesPressure: 1 V output = 0 mmHg, 2 V output = 100 mmHg
Biopotential: 2 V output = 0 mV input, 4 V output = 2 mV input
SNA: 2 V output = 0 µV input, 4 V output = 60 µV input
Temperature: 0 V output = 0°C, 1 V output = 20°C

The TR50B Biopotential telemeter is suitable for use in rats >175 g. The TR50B measures the biopotential difference between the two electrode leads. The leads can be placed to measure a single biopotential signal such as ECG, EEG or EMG. The TR50B is compatible with the TR181 SmartPad (or TR180 SmartPad) and the TR190 Configurator.

Made of biocompatible silicone, the telemeter weighs ~12 g (7 cm3) and includes 25 cm long biopotential leads. When used on the SmartPad, 24/7 data transmission is available. The battery in the TR50B allows the telemeter to continue transmitting data for 4-6 hours if away from the SmartPad recharging field.

Product Specifications
Biopotential Input Range±2 mV
Biopotential Resolution12 bit A/D
Biopotential High Pass CharacteristicsAC coupled, single pole, -3dB point at 0.7 Hz
Biopotential Lead Wires25 cm length, coiled stainless steel (1 pair)
Biopotential Lead Wire Diameter1 mm
CalibrationPre-calibrated
Analog Output Calibration ValuesBiopotential: 2 V output = 0 mV input, 4 V output = 2 mV input
Temperature: 0 V output = 0°C, 1 V output = 20°C

The TR50BB Dual Biopotential telemeter is suitable for use in rats >175 g. The TR50BB measures the biopotential difference between each pair of electrode leads. The leads can be used to measure two biopotential signals such as ECG, EMG and/or EEG. The TR50BB is compatible for use with the TR181 SmartPad (or TR180 SmartPad) and the TR190 Configurator.

Made of biocompatible silicone, the telemeter weighs ~12 g (7 cm3) and includes 25 cm long biopotential leads. When used on the SmartPad, 24/7 data transmission is available. The battery in the TR50BB allows the telemeter to continue transmitting data for 4-6 hours if away from the SmartPad recharging field.

Product Specifications
Biopotential Input Range±2 mV
Biopotential Resolution12 bit A/D
Biopotential High Pass CharacteristicsAC coupled, single pole, -3dB point at 0.7 Hz
Biopotential Lead Wires25 cm length, coiled stainless steel (2 pairs)
Biopotential Lead Wire Diameter1 mm
CalibrationPre-calibrated
Analog Output Calibration ValuesBiopotential: 2 V output = 0 mV input, 4 V output = 2 mV input
Temperature: 0 V output = 0°C, 1 V output = 20°C

The TRM54P Kaha Sciences Rat Pressure telemeter is suitable for use in rats >175 g. The TRM54P measures high-fidelity pressure using a solid-state Millar sensor. Pressure is measured directly at the tip of the 9cm catheter and the telemeter can be used to measure arterial, venous, ventricular or intracranial pressure (25 cm catheter required). The TRM54P is compatible for use with the TR181 SmartPad (or TR180 SmartPad) and TR190 Configurator.

Made of biocompatible silicone, the telemeter weighs approximately 12 g and includes a Millar solid state pressure sensor (2Fr in diameter, 9 cm long (15 cm & 25 cm options available)). When used on the SmartPad, 24/7 data transmission is available. The battery in the TRM54P allows the telemeter to continue transmitting data for 4-6 hours if away from the SmartPad recharging field.

Product Specifications
Pressure Sensor Accuracy±2 mmHg
Pressure Sensor Drift<4 mmHg per month
Pressure Sensor Frequency ResponseDC to 500 Hz (-3 dB)
Standard Pressure Catheter DimensionsDistal Tip: 660 µm OD (2 Fr), Catheter; 500 µm (1.5 Fr), Length; 9 cm (15 & 25 cm options available)
Pressure Sensor Range-40 to 300 mmHg @ atm of 760 mmHg (720 to 1060 mmHg absolute pressure)
Ambient Pressure Range650 to 800 mmHg
Maximum Operating Altitude1300 m
CalibrationPre-calibrated
Analog Output Calibration ValuesPressure: 1 V output = 0 mmHg, 2 V output = 100 mmHg
Temperature: 0 V output = 0°C, 1 V output = 20°C

The TRM54PB Kaha Sciences Rat Pressure Biopotential telemeter is suitable for use in rats >175 g. The TRM54PB combines measurement of high-fidelity pressure using a solid-state Millar sensor with a single biopotential signal (e.g. ECG, EEG or EMG). Pressure is measured directly at the tip of the pressure catheter (2Fr in diameter, 9 cm long (15 cm & 25 cm options available)) and the telemeter can be used to measure arterial, venous, ventricular or intracranial pressure (25 cm catheter required). The biopotential signal measures the potential difference between the pair of 25 cm coiled electrode leads. The TRM54PB is compatible for use with the TR181 SmartPad (or TR180 SmartPad) and TR190 Configurator.

When used on the SmartPad, 24/7 data transmission is available. The battery in the TRM54PB allows the telemeter to continue transmitting data for 4-6 hours if away from the SmartPad recharging field.

Product Specifications
Pressure Sensor Accuracy±2 mmHg
Pressure Sensor Drift<4 mmHg per month
Pressure Sensor Frequency ResponseDC to 500 Hz (-3 dB)
Standard Pressure Catheter DimensionsDistal Tip: 660 µm OD (2 Fr), Catheter; 500 µm (1.5 Fr), Length; 9 cm (15 & 25 cm options available)
Pressure Sensor Range-40 to 300 mmHg @ atm of 760 mmHg (720 to 1060 mmHg absolute pressure)
Ambient Pressure Range650 to 800 mmHg
Maximum Operating Altitude1300 m
Biopotential Input Range±2 mV
Biopotential Resolution12 bit A/D
Biopotential High Pass CharacteristicsAC coupled, single pole, -3dB point at 0.7 Hz
Biopotential Lead Wires25 cm length, coiled stainless steel (1 pair)
Biopotential Lead Wires Diameter1 mm
CalibrationPre-calibrated
Analog Output Calibration ValuesPressure: 1 V output = 0 mmHg, 2 V output = 100 mmHg
Biopotential: 2 V output = 0 mV input, 4 V output = 2 mV input
Temperature: 0 V output = 0°C, 1 V output = 20°C

The TRM54PP Kaha Sciences Rat Dual Pressure telemeter is suitable for use in rats >175 g. The TRM54PP measures two high-fidelity pressures using solid-state Millar sensors. Pressure is measured directly at the tip of each pressure catheter (2Fr in diameter, 9 cm long (15 cm & 25 cm options available)) and the telemeter can be used to measure arterial, venous, ventricular and/or intracranial pressures (25 cm catheter option). The TRM54PP is compatible for use with the TR181 SmartPad (or TR180 SmartPad) and TR190 Configurator.

When used on the SmartPad, 24/7 data transmission is available. The battery in the TRM54PP allows the telemeter to continue transmitting data for 4-6 hours if away from the SmartPad recharging field.

Product Specifications
Pressure Sensor Accuracy±2 mmHg
Pressure Sensor Drift<4 mmHg per month
Pressure Sensor Frequency ResponseDC to 500 Hz (-3 dB)
Standard Pressure Catheter DimensionsDistal Tip: 660 µm OD (2 Fr), Catheter; 500 µm (1.5 Fr), Length; 9 cm (15 & 25 cm options available)
Pressure Sensor Range-40 to 300 mmHg @ atm of 760 mmHg (720 to 1060 mmHg absolute pressure)
Ambient Pressure Range650 to 800 mmHg
Maximum Operating Altitude1300 m
CalibrationPre-calibrated
Analog Output Calibration ValuesPressure: 1 V output = 0 mmHg, 2 V output = 100 mmHg
Temperature: 0 V output = 0°C, 1 V output = 20°C

The TRM56SP Kaha Sciences Rat Sympathetic Nerve Activity (SNA) and Pressure Telemeter is suitable for use in rats >175 g. It is the only commercially available telemetry device that allows concurrent measurement of SNA and pressure. The TRM56SP is compatible for use with the TR181 SmartPad (or TR180 SmartPad) and TR190 Configurator.

The telemeter is made of biocompatible silicone, weighs approximately 12 g with a Millar solid state pressure sensor (2Fr in diameter, 9 cm long (15 cm & 25 cm options available)) and multi-stranded SNA lead wires (25 cm long). The telemeter samples the pressure and SNA signals at 2 kHz with an SNA input range of ±60 µV. When used on the SmartPad, 24/7 data transmission is available. The battery in the TRM56SP allows the telemeter to continue transmitting data for 4-6 hours if away from the SmartPad recharging field.

Product Specifications
Pressure Sensor Accuracy±2 mmHg
Pressure Sensor Drift<4 mmHg per month
Pressure Sensor Frequency ResponseDC to 500 Hz (-3 dB)
Standard Pressure Catheter DimensionsDistal Tip: 660 µm OD (2 Fr), Catheter; 500 µm (1.5 Fr), Length; 9 cm
Pressure Sensor Range-40 to 300 mmHg @ atm of 760 mmHg (720 to 1060 mmHg absolute pressure)
Ambient Pressure Range650 to 800 mmHg
Maximum Operating Altitude1300 m
SNA Input Range±60 µV
SNA High Pass Filter-3dB point at 1.5 Hz
SNA Input Impedance500 kOhms at 1000 Hz
SNA Lead WiresMulti-stranded stainless steel (length 25 cm)
SNA Lead Wire Diameter0.15 mm (wire only)
CalibrationPre-calibrated
Analog Output Calibration ValuesPressure: 1 V output = 0 mmHg, 2 V output = 100 mmHg
SNA: 2 V output = 0 µV input, 4 V output = 60 µV input
Temperature: 0 V output = 0°C, 1 V output = 20°C

The TR57Y Kaha Sciences Rat Tissue Oxygen Telemeter is an implantable potentiostat with a carbon paste electrode specifically configured for measuring tissue (e.g. brain, kidney) oxygen concentration in freely moving rats >175 g. The telemeter can be easily cleaned and sterilized for reuse after attachment of new electrodes. The TR57Y is compatible for use with the TR181 SmartPad (or TR180 SmartPad) and TR190 Configurator.

Kaha Sciences - TR57Y Tissue Oxygen Telemeter

The Kaha Sciences Cohousing feature allows tissue oxygen measurement with other signals by placing two telemeters in one rat. The telemeter is made of biocompatible silicone, weighs approximately 12 g. When used on the SmartPad, 24/7 data transmission is available. The battery in the TR57Y allows the telemeter to continue transmitting data for 4-6 hours if away from the SmartPad recharging field.

The Telemeter has three lead wires (28 cm, coiled stainless steel) to which electrodes are attached:

  • Working lead – carbon paste electrode (200 μm)

  • Auxiliary lead – silver/platinum electrode

  • Reference lead – silver/platinum electrode

Applications:

  • Memory, learning research (Hippocampus)

  • Metabolism research (Cortex)

  • Long-term trends in sleep/wake research, EEG monitoring

  • Long-term behavioral testing in mazes for anxiety, memory, fear etc (pharmacological tests/drug therapy)

  • Social interaction between animals

  • Ischemia research

Product Specifications
Potentiostat Type Voltage controlled current source
Set Potential-0.65 V (-650 mV)
Potentiostat Current Measurement Range0 to 600 nA
Potentiostat Resolution12 bit A/D
Potentiostat Lead WiresCoiled stainless steel (~28 cm)
Potentiostat Lead Wire Diameter1 mm
CalibrationUser required to compensate for the individual Carbon Paste Electrode sensitivity coefficient (supplied).
Sensitivity range is 1-2 nA/µMol
Analog Output Calibration ValuesOxygen: 1 V output = 0 nA, 2 V output = -200 nA
Temperature: 0 V output = 0°C, 1 V output = 20°C

Rat System Hardware

The TR181 SmartPad is a receiver and charger in a single unit and will power and receive signals from any of our rat telemeters.

  • Optimized to fit standard rodent cages

  • Provides wireless recharging using patented inductive power

  • Cohousing feature allows housing of two telemetered rats in one cage (requires two SmartPads)

  • Receives digital telemeter signals

  • Outputs signals as analog voltage for connection to any data acquisition system

Kaha Sciences - TR181 SmartPad
SmartPad ModelTR181
SmartPad FunctionsContains ambient pressure monitor, outputs standard analog voltage compatible with any data acquisition system (BNC), recharges the telemeter battery, has a built-in fan for optimal temperature control.
Weight2.8 Kg
Dimensions400 (w) x 450 (d) x 75 (h) mm
Cage Platform Dimensions295 (w) x 425 (d) mm
Power Input100-240 V, 50-60 Hz
Max. Power Draw50 W
Temperature Operating Range10 to 40 degrees Celsius
Output ConnectorsBNC x 3
Ouput Voltage Range0 to 4 V
Low Pass Filtering on Signal OutputsCut off frequency = 1000 Hz

Configurator System

The Configurator System (TR190 Configurator hardware and ConfigSoft software), wirelessly communicates with the rat telemeters and tBases. The system allows the user to:

  • Change/configure the transmission frequency of the tBase

  • Change/configure the transmission frequency of the telemeter.

  • Run Diagnostics on telemeters and tBases.

Only a single Configurator System is required for each laboratory and it is NOT required during data acquisition. Existing Configurator hardware in use with Rat Telemetry Systems can be used with the Mouse Telemetry System, however, a firmware and ConfigSoft software upgrade may be required.

Kaha Sciences - TR190 ConfigSoft & Configurator System